Fish Oil for Fat Loss

Written by Monica Mollica on .

Fish oil is most known for its beneficial cardiovascular and cardiac health effects, and continues to top the list of health promoting supplements. In 2004 FDA approved a prescription fish oil preparation for treatment of high blood triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia) (1). Recently several studies have shown that fish oil also has other beneficial effects, which might appeal more to the younger crowd, and especially to fitness and bodybuilding enthusiasts. One of these effects is fat loss.

Fish Oil Induced Fat Loss

In the 80s early 90s, several animal studies showed that fish oil reduces body fat (2-5) and weight gain (6-9), and limits adipose tissue expansion (10-12). These effects have been seen during both a decreased (3, 7), constant (5) or even increased energy intakes (6). This indicates that the fatty acids in fish oil, notably EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), have an effect on the partitioning of fat between oxidation (fat burning) and storage in the body.

Mechanism – how does it work?

In search for the mechanisms behind fish oil induced fat loss, it has been found that fish oil exerts favorable metabolic effects by modulating gene expression (which is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is converted into protein)(2, 13-26). While we inherit our genes (or blueprints) from our parents, what determines the way in which our blueprints are interpreted is largely dictated by a collection of environmental factors. The nutrients we consume are among the most influential of these environmental factors (27, 28). One dietary constituent that has a strong influence on our genetic makeup is dietary fat (2, 13, 14, 16-19, 21-23, 25, 29). Fatty acids from dietary fat not only influences hormonal signaling events, but also have a very strong direct influence on the molecular events that govern gene expression.

More specifically, it has been shown that the fatty acids EPA and DHA from fish oil (by affecting gene expression) inhibit the activities of fat synthesizing (lipogenic) enzymes (30-37), while at the same time stimulating the activities of key enzymes that govern fat oxidation (fat burning) (2, 38-46).

Fish oil also has been shown to increase levels of adiponectin and decrease levels of cortisol (47, 48). Adiponectin is a novel adipose tissue-specific protein that circulates in human plasma at high levels (49). It is one of the physiologically active polypeptides secreted by adipose tissue, whose multiple functions have started to be understood in the last few years. Some of its beneficial effects are enhanced insulin sensitivity, and lowered plasma glucose (blood sugar) and triglyceride levels (49, 50). A reduction in adiponectin expression is associated with insulin resistance (49), and adiponectin levels are inversely related to the degree of adiposity (50). The activity of adiponectin has also been associated with steroid and thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, and nitric oxide, and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties (50). Thus, it is plausible that fish oil induces some of its effect by affecting adiponectin levels.
While the functions of adiponectin are just starting to emerge, it is likely to become a target for therapeutic applications in the future.

It is interesting that fish oil lowers cortisol. While the exact role of cortisol in obesity isn’t fully elucidated (51, 52), it is known that excessive cortisol levels result in substantial fat mass gain (53, 54). Thus, the reduction in cortisol levels after fish oil supplementation could contribute at least partly to the fat loss observed with fish oil supplementation. In another article "Fish Oil for Muscle Growth" I'm covering the anti-catabolic/muscle growth effects of fish oil in more detail.

Does it work in humans - what’s in it for me?

At this point you might be thinking “ok, that all sounds nice, but I’m not a rat. Does it work in humans”? Yes! Read on…

Non-dieting
Recently several studies have shown that fish oil also can help people to get in shape. In a landmark study in healthy young non-obese males, 6 g of fat from butter, olive oil, sunflower oil and peanut oil was replaced with 6 g fish oil (corresponding to 1,100 mg EPA and 700 mg DHA) per day (55). After 3 weeks the researchers noted a significantly increased resting fat burning (fat oxidation) and a 1.94 lb (0.88 kg) decrease in body fat (measured by the golden standard method DEXA). There was no change in body weight. This fat loss was seen despite that subjects were told not to change their usual exercise and food habits.

Other studies have confirmed the fat loss effects of fish oil when added to people's usual lifestyle habits. One study gave healthy men and women (mean age 33 yrs), who were told to maintain their current food and exercise practices 4 g fish oil, providing 1,600 mg EPA and 800 mg DHA (48). After 6 weeks, the placebo group, which was given 4 g of safflower oil, showed a tendency towards fat gain. In contrast, the fish oil group experienced a significant reduction in fat mass of 1.1 lb (0.5 kg) and increase in fat-free mass of 1.1 lb (0.5 kg) (measured by air displacement plethysmography), with no change in body weight. A 1.1 lb reduction in fat mass combined with a 1.1 lb increase in fat-free mass, without changes in subject's typical food and exercise habits is pretty remarkable body composition improvement. It also underscores the importance of investigating fat mass and lean mass separately, since just measuring body weight will not tell anything about potential body composition changes, which after all is what is interesting from both a health, esthetic and physical performance viewpoint. For more into on the anti-catabolic and lean mass gaining effects of fish oil, see  "Fish Oil for Muscle Growth"
 
Another study, also against a background of constant food and exercise routines, gave obese type 2 diabetic female subjects 1,080 mg EPA and 720 mg DHA for 2 months, or placebo paraffin oil (56). Even though there was no change in body weight, the fish oil group demonstrated a significant reduction in fat mass by 3.6 lb (1,614 kg). This fat mass reduction was mainly due to a decrease in trunk (belly) fat. In addition, fish oil group experienced a reduction in fat cell size by 6.3 % (56).

It has also been found that supplementing with fish oil for 3 weeks (1,100 g EPA and 700 g DHA daily) significantly decreases insulin levels and increases fat burning after consumption of carbohydrate rich meals (57). Supplementation with fish oil providing 2,400 mg EPA and 1,600 mg DHA for 3 weeks also boosts fat burning during jogging exercise (58).

Combined with exercise
Fish oil seems to be even more effective when combined with exercise. In obese men and women, the effects of the addition of 6 g of fish oil daily (providing 360 mg EPA and 1,560 mg DHA) in combination with regular aerobic activity (walking 45 min three times per week at an intensity of 75% of age-predicted maximal heart rate) for 12 weeks, was investigated (59). The results showed that the combination of fish oil and regular aerobic activity not only improved several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but also significantly reduced body fat mass with 4.4 lb (2 kg) (59). The finding that
body weight and body fat percentage didn't change in the placebo group (which was put on the same exercise program but received 6 g sunflower oil instead of the fish oil) underscores the efficacy of fish oil for fat loss.

It is interesting that the fat loss seen in the fish oil - exercise group occurred even though the subjects did not change their usual food habits; they just added the fish oil supplement and exercise program to their regimen. This indicates the great potential benefits of fish oil combined with regular physical activity for improving body composition and cardiovascular health.

In this study, no fat loss was seen in fish oil only group (which didn’t exercise). This is probably due to the very low dose of EPA. Most studies showing that fish oil increases fat loss have use fish oil products that provide 1.5-2 times more EPA than DHA, like Lean Lipid Complex does.

Combined with a calorie restricted diet
Fish oil supplementation can boost calorie restricted diets as well. This was found in a study that investigated the effect of including fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss (60). Young obese adults were put on a calorie restricted diet (30 % less calories than their usual intake, about 600 calorie deficit), supplemented with 6 g fish oil providing 1,500 mg EPA + DHA, or placebo (sunflower oil capsules). It was found that the fish oil enriched diet resulted in 2.2 lb (1 kg) more weight loss and greater reductions in waist circumference after only 4 weeks, than the same diet without fish oil (60).

Combined with a calorie restricted diet and exercise program
In a study that tested the effect of adding 2,800 mg/day fish oil (EPA:DHA ratio 2:1) to a low-calorie diet combined with an exercise program, severely obese women (61). After 3 weeks the fish oil group lost 3.3 lb (1.5 kg) more weight and slashed almost 1 inch (2.3 cm) more fat from their hips, than the non-supplemented group.

While body fat changes were not reported, the researchers did find a greater increase in blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (a ketone body) in the fish oil supplemented group compared with control group, and interpreted this as providing evidence of greater fat oxidation in the fish oil group (61). These findings indicate that the addition of fish oil to a relatively short (3 week) weight loss program comprising severe caloric restriction and exercise, may increase fat oxidation and lead to greater improvement in body composition.

Perspective on fish oil and fat loss

In contrast to the positive studies, there are a few that didn’t show any fat loss with fish oil supplementation (62-65). This could be due to differences in subject characteristics (age, initial body fat mass, baseline physical activity), methodological differences, and differences in fish oil preparations.
As outlined above, several high quality studies have shown that fish oil supplementation has a significant fat loss effect in addition to all its other health promoting effects. The majority of evidence thus supports fish oil's ability to shift fat metabolism away from storage towards burning of body fat, even in humans.

It’s getting better – fat loss combined with lean mass (muscle) gain
In one of the most recent studies on fish oil’s fat loss effect, men and women (mean age 33 yrs) where given 4 g of fish oil corresponding to 1600 mg EPA and 800 mg DHA (48). After 6 weeks, the placebo group, which was given 4 g of safflower oil, showed a tendency towards fat gain. The fish oil group instead had lost 0.5 kg of fat mass and gained 0.5 kg of lean mass, with no change in body weight.

This is a very beneficial body composition effect and underscores the importance of investigating fat mass and lean mass separately, since just measuring body weight will not tell anything about changes in body composition. After all, it's not weight loss per see, but fat loss and muscle gain that's interesting from both a health, esthetic and physical performance viewpoint. I cover the muscle growth stimulating and anti-catabolic effect of fish oil in another article "Fish Oil for Muscle Growth".

Bottom Line

Whether you are on a diet or not, adding a fish oil supplement to your regimen can effectively help you get in shape. The additional calories from the fish oil will not get stored (66); quite to the contrary, fish oil will help you get rid of calories you already have stored in your body fat. What’s interesting is that fish oil supplementation seems to reduce body fat and waist circumference despite unchanged exercise and/or other dietary practices.

Aim for a daily fish oil intake that provides you with at least 1600 mg EPA and 800 mg DHA, but a higher dose, 2400 mg EPA and 1600 mg DHA (a total of 4 g EPA and DHA total), might result in a larger fat loss. To achieve this high intake of EPA and DHA it is advisable to take a fish oil concentrate. In an upcoming article I will go into more detail about fish oil concentrates, different ratios of EPA to DHA in fish oil preparations, their relative effectiveness, safety aspects of high dose fish oil supplementation, and sort through the myriad of fish oil supplements currently available on the market, to help you find a good fish oil supplement that will give you the best bang and effectiveness for your buck.

References:

1. Mason CM, Long J, Conroy C 2011 Prescription Omega-3s: An Overview for Nurse Practitioners. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 26:290-297
2. Baillie RA, Takada R, Nakamura M, Clarke SD 1999 Coordinate induction of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and UCP-3 by dietary fish oil: a mechanism for decreased body fat deposition. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids 60:351-356
3. Hill JO, Peters JC, Lin D, Yakubu F, Greene H, Swift L 1993 Lipid accumulation and body fat distribution is influenced by type of dietary fat fed to rats. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 17:223-236
4. Ikemoto S, Takahashi M, Tsunoda N, Maruyama K, Itakura H, Ezaki O 1996 High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: differential effects of dietary oils. Metabolism: clinical and experimental 45:1539-1546
5. Su W, Jones PJ 1993 Dietary fatty acid composition influences energy accretion in rats. The Journal of nutrition 123:2109-2114
6. Cunnane SC, McAdoo KR, Horrobin DF 1986 n-3 Essential fatty acids decrease weight gain in genetically obese mice. The British journal of nutrition 56:87-95
7. LeBoeuf RC, Veldee MS 1993 Genetically determined body weight loss in mice fed diets containing salmon oil. The Journal of nutrition 123:547-558
8. Mori T, Kondo H, Hase T, Tokimitsu I, Murase T 2007 Dietary fish oil upregulates intestinal lipid metabolism and reduces body weight gain in C57BL/6J mice. The Journal of nutrition 137:2629-2634
9. Pan DA, Storlien LH 1993 Dietary lipid profile is a determinant of tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and rate of weight gain in rats. The Journal of nutrition 123:512-519
10. Belzung F, Raclot T, Groscolas R 1993 Fish oil n-3 fatty acids selectively limit the hypertrophy of abdominal fat depots in growing rats fed high-fat diets. The American journal of physiology 264:R1111-1118
11. Parrish CC, Pathy DA, Angel A 1990 Dietary fish oils limit adipose tissue hypertrophy in rats. Metabolism: clinical and experimental 39:217-219
12. Ruzickova J, Rossmeisl M, Prazak T, Flachs P, Sponarova J, Veck M, Tvrzicka E, Bryhn M, Kopecky J 2004 Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin limit diet-induced obesity in mice by reducing cellularity of adipose tissue. Lipids 39:1177-1185
13. Clarke SD 2000 Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. The British journal of nutrition 83 Suppl 1:S59-66
14. Clarke SD 2001 Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a molecular mechanism to improve the metabolic syndrome. The Journal of nutrition 131:1129-1132
15. Clarke SD 2004 The multi-dimensional regulation of gene expression by fatty acids: polyunsaturated fats as nutrient sensors. Current opinion in lipidology 15:13-18
16. Clarke SD, Baillie R, Jump DB, Nakamura MT 1997 Fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Its role in fuel partitioning and insulin resistance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 827:178-187
17. Clarke SD, Gasperikova D, Nelson C, Lapillonne A, Heird WC 2002 Fatty acid regulation of gene expression: a genomic explanation for the benefits of the mediterranean diet. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 967:283-298
18. Clarke SD, Jump DB 1994 Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. Annual review of nutrition 14:83-98
19. Clarke SD, Thuillier P, Baillie RA, Sha X 1999 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: a family of lipid-activated transcription factors. The American journal of clinical nutrition 70:566-571
20. Davidson MH 2006 Mechanisms for the hypotriglyceridemic effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids. The American journal of cardiology 98:27i-33i
21. Jump DB, Clarke SD, Thelen A, Liimatta M, Ren B, Badin M 1996 Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. Progress in lipid research 35:227-241
22. Jump DB, Clarke SD, Thelen A, Liimatta M, Ren B, Badin MV 1997 Dietary fat, genes, and human health. Advances in experimental medicine and biology 422:167-176
23. Nakamura MT, Cho HP, Xu J, Tang Z, Clarke SD 2001 Metabolism and functions of highly unsaturated fatty acids: an update. Lipids 36:961-964
24. Ntambi JM, Bene H 2001 Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 16:273-278; discussion 279-284
25. Price PT, Nelson CM, Clarke SD 2000 Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. Current opinion in lipidology 11:3-7
26. Raclot T, Oudart H 1999 Selectivity of fatty acids on lipid metabolism and gene expression. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58:633-646
27. Moustaid-Moussa N, Berdanier CD 2001 Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Health and Disease. 2nd ed ed: CRC Press
28. Berdanier CD, Moustaid-Moussa N 2004 Genomics and Proteomics in Nutrition. 1st ed ed: CRC Press
29. Lapillonne A, Clarke SD, Heird WC 2004 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 7:151-156
30. Hannah VC, Ou J, Luong A, Goldstein JL, Brown MS 2001 Unsaturated fatty acids down-regulate srebp isoforms 1a and 1c by two mechanisms in HEK-293 cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 276:4365-4372
31. Kim HJ, Takahashi M, Ezaki O 1999 Fish oil feeding decreases mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) by down-regulation of SREBP-1c mRNA in mouse liver. A possible mechanism for down-regulation of lipogenic enzyme mRNAs. The Journal of biological chemistry 274:25892-25898
32. Mater MK, Thelen AP, Pan DA, Jump DB 1999 Sterol response element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) is involved in the polyunsaturated fatty acid suppression of hepatic S14 gene transcription. The Journal of biological chemistry 274:32725-32732
33. Nakatani T, Kim HJ, Kaburagi Y, Yasuda K, Ezaki O 2003 A low fish oil inhibits SREBP-1 proteolytic cascade, while a high-fish-oil feeding decreases SREBP-1 mRNA in mice liver: relationship to anti-obesity. Journal of lipid research 44:369-379
34. Shimano H, Yahagi N, Amemiya-Kudo M, Hasty AH, Osuga J, Tamura Y, Shionoiri F, Iizuka Y, Ohashi K, Harada K, Gotoda T, Ishibashi S, Yamada N 1999 Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 as a key transcription factor for nutritional induction of lipogenic enzyme genes. The Journal of biological chemistry 274:35832-35839
35. Worgall TS, Sturley SL, Seo T, Osborne TF, Deckelbaum RJ 1998 Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease expression of promoters with sterol regulatory elements by decreasing levels of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein. The Journal of biological chemistry 273:25537-25540
36. Xu J, Nakamura MT, Cho HP, Clarke SD 1999 Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 expression is suppressed by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. A mechanism for the coordinate suppression of lipogenic genes by polyunsaturated fats. The Journal of biological chemistry 274:23577-23583
37. Yahagi N, Shimano H, Hasty AH, Amemiya-Kudo M, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, Iizuka Y, Shionoiri F, Ohashi K, Osuga J, Harada K, Gotoda T, Nagai R, Ishibashi S, Yamada N 1999 A crucial role of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in the regulation of lipogenic gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Journal of biological chemistry 274:35840-35844
38. Desvergne B, Wahli W 1999 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocrine reviews 20:649-688
39. Kersten S, Desvergne B, Wahli W 2000 Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 405:421-424
40. Latruffe N, Vamecq J 1997 Peroxisome proliferators and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) as regulators of lipid metabolism. Biochimie 79:81-94
41. Minnich A, Tian N, Byan L, Bilder G 2001 A potent PPARalpha agonist stimulates mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle. American journal of physiology Endocrinology and metabolism 280:E270-279
42. Nakatani T, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Takahashi M, Miura S, Ezaki O 2002 Mechanism for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator-induced up-regulation of UCP2 mRNA in rodent hepatocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry 277:9562-9569
43. Power GW, Newsholme EA 1997 Dietary fatty acids influence the activity and metabolic control of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat heart and skeletal muscle. The Journal of nutrition 127:2142-2150
44. Schoonjans K, Staels B, Auwerx J 1996 The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARS) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1302:93-109
45. Krey G, Braissant O, L'Horset F, Kalkhoven E, Perroud M, Parker MG, Wahli W 1997 Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay. Mol Endocrinol 11:779-791
46. Reddy JK, Mannaerts GP 1994 Peroxisomal lipid metabolism. Annual review of nutrition 14:343-370
47. Delarue J, Matzinger O, Binnert C, Schneiter P, Chiolero R, Tappy L 2003 Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men. Diabetes & metabolism 29:289-295
48. Noreen EE, Sass MJ, Crowe ML, Pabon VA, Brandauer J, Averill LK 2010 Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7:31
49. Diez JJ, Iglesias P 2003 The role of the novel adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin in human disease. European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies 148:293-300
50. Nedvidkova J, Smitka K, Kopsky V, Hainer V 2005 Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 54:133-140
51. Walker BR 2001 Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity: cause or consequence? Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 11 Suppl A:S91-95
52. Salehi M, Ferenczi A, Zumoff B 2005 Obesity and cortisol status. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme 37:193-197
53. Bjorntorp P, Rosmond R 2000 Obesity and cortisol. Nutrition 16:924-936
54. Pasquali R, Vicennati V, Cacciari M, Pagotto U 2006 The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1083:111-128
55. Couet C, Delarue J, Ritz P, Antoine JM, Lamisse F 1997 Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 21:637-643
56. Kabir M, Skurnik G, Naour N, Pechtner V, Meugnier E, Rome S, Quignard-Boulange A, Vidal H, Slama G, Clement K, Guerre-Millo M, Rizkalla SW 2007 Treatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study. The American journal of clinical nutrition 86:1670-1679
57. Delarue J, Couet C, Cohen R, Brechot JF, Antoine JM, Lamisse F 1996 Effects of fish oil on metabolic responses to oral fructose and glucose loads in healthy humans. The American journal of physiology 270:E353-362
58. Huffman DM, Michaelson JL, Thomas T, R. 2004 Chronic supplementation with fish oil increases fat oxidation during exercise in young men. . JEPonline 7:48-56
59. Hill AM, Buckley JD, Murphy KJ, Howe PR 2007 Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The American journal of clinical nutrition 85:1267-1274
60. Thorsdottir I, Tomasson H, Gunnarsdottir I, Gisladottir E, Kiely M, Parra MD, Bandarra NM, Schaafsma G, Martinez JA 2007 Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes (Lond) 31:1560-1566
61. Kunesova M, Braunerova R, Hlavaty P, Tvrzicka E, Stankova B, Skrha J, Hilgertova J, Hill M, Kopecky J, Wagenknecht M, Hainer V, Matoulek M, Parizkova J, Zak A, Svacina S 2006 The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 55:63-72
62. Brilla LR, Landerholm TE 1990 Effect of fish oil supplementation and exercise on serum lipids and aerobic fitness. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 30:173-180
63. Warner JG, Jr., Ullrich IH, Albrink MJ, Yeater RA 1989 Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 21:498-505
64. Krebs JD, Browning LM, McLean NK, Rothwell JL, Mishra GD, Moore CS, Jebb SA 2006 Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic women. Int J Obes (Lond) 30:1535-1544
65. DeFina LF, Marcoux LG, Devers SM, Cleaver JP, Willis BL 2011 Effects of omega-3 supplementation in combination with diet and exercise on weight loss and body composition. The American journal of clinical nutrition 93:455-462
66. Bays HE, Maki KC, Doyle RT, Stein E 2009 The effect of prescription omega-3 fatty acids on body weight after 8 to 16 weeks of treatment for very high triglyceride levels. Postgraduate medicine 121:145-150

 

I'm a contributor to these health & fitness science based info resources!

    

The International Society of Sports Nutrition

The only non-profit academic society dedicated to promoting the science and application of evidence-based sports nutrition and supplementation. Dedicated to growing the science of applied nutrition, and promoting the health & fitness lifestyle. Cudos!